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This is a list of sovereign states, containing 203 entries, giving an overview of states around the world with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty. For the sake of clarity, it is divided into two parts. The first part lists all 193 widely recognised sovereign states, including all member states of the United Nations and Vatican City. The second part lists states which are de facto sovereign, but which are not widely recognised by other states. Both parts are arranged alphabetically.

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as the status of many entries is disputed. For information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the "criteria for inclusion" section below. For more general information on sovereign states, please see "sovereign state".

Snið:CompactTOC8

Internationally recognized sovereign states[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

Name in English, the official languages and major minority languages of the state[1] Information on status and recognition of sovereignty[2]

A[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Abkhazia Snið:Arrow Other states

Fáni Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Albania – Republic of Albania
  • Albanian: Shqipëria – Republika e Shqipërise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  • Arabic: الجزائر – الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Andorra – Principality of Andorra
  • Catalan: Andorra – Principat d’Andorra
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Angola – Republic of Angola Widely recognized member of the UN. A separatist government in exile claims independence for Cabinda.[3]

Snið:Country data Antigua and Barbuda Widely recognized member of the UN. Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[4] and has a division (dependency), Barbuda, with an autonomous status.[5]

Snið:Country data Argentina – Argentine Republic[6]
  • Spanish: Argentina – República Argentina
Widely recognized member of the UN. Argentina is a federation[7] of twenty-three Provinces and one Autonomous City. Argentine claims over the Argentine Antarctica are suspended by the Antarctic Treaty. Argentina also claims sovereignty over the British overseas territories of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.[8]

Snið:Country data Armenia – Republic of Armenia
  • Armenian: Հայաստան – Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN. Armenia is not recognized by one UN member, Pakistan, as this country has a position of supporting Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and Armenia's recognition of Kashmir belonging to India.

Fáni Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
  • English: Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
Widely recognized member of the UN. Australia is a Commonwealth realm[4] and a federation[7] of states and territories. Australia has sovereignty over:

Australia claims sovereignty over parts of Antarctica as:


Fáni Austria – Republic of Austria
  • German: Österreich – Republik Österreich
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Austria is a federation[7] divided into 9 federal-states (Bundesländer).

Snið:Country data Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan Widely recognized member of the UN. Azerbaijan has one autonomous republic, Nakhchivan and the autonomous region of Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ,).[5] In Nagorno-Karabakh, a de facto country in the de jure territory of Azerbaijan has been established.

B[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Snið:Country data Bahamas – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  • English: The Bahamas – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

Snið:Country data Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh
  • Bengali: বাংলাদেশ – গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Barbados Widely recognized member of the UN. Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

Snið:Country data Belarus – Republic of Belarus
  • Belarusian: Беларусь – Рэспубліка БеларусьSnið:Rom
  • Russian: Беларусь / Белоруссия – Республика БеларусьSnið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium
  • Dutch: België – Koninkrijk België
  • French: Belgique – Royaume de Belgique
  • German: Belgien – Königreich Belgien
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Belgium is a federation[7] divided into linguistic communities and regions.

Snið:Country data Belize Widely recognized member of the UN. Belize is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

Snið:Country data Benin – Republic of Benin[10]
  • French: Bénin – République du Bénin
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan
  • Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་ - འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia
  • Spanish: Bolivia – Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
  • Aymara: Wuliwya – Wuliwya Suyu
  • Guarani: Volivia – Tetã Volívia
  • Quechua: Bulibiya – Bulibiya Mama Llaqta
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Bosnia and Herzegovina Widely recognized member of the UN. As a result of the Dayton Agreement between Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into two constituent entities:[11]

Snið:Country data Botswana – Republic of Botswana
  • Tswana: Botswana – Lefatshe la Botswana
  • English: Botswana – Republic of Botswana
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil
  • Portuguese: Brasil – República Federativa do Brasil
Widely recognized member of the UN. Brazil is a federation[7] divided into 26 states and one federal district.

Snið:Country data Brunei – State of Brunei, Abode of Peace Widely recognized member of the UN. Brunei claims sovereignty over part of the Spratly Islands.[12]

Snið:Country data Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria
  • Bulgarian: България – Република БългарияSnið:Rom
  • Turkish: Bulgaristan – Bulgaristan Cumhuriyeti
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

Snið:Country data Burkina Faso[13] Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Burma – Union of Myanmar
  • Burmese: ပြည်ထောင်စု မြန်မာ နိုင်ငံတော် Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN

Snið:Country data Burundi – Republic of Burundi
  • Kirundi: Uburundi – Republika y'Uburundi
  • French: Burundi – République du Burundi
Widely recognized member of the UN.

C[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Fáni Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia
  • Khmer: កម្ពុជា - ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រ កម្ពុជា
Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
  • French: Cameroun – République du Cameroun
  • English: Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Canada[14] Widely recognized member of the UN. Canada is a Commonwealth realm[4] and a federation[7] divided into provinces and territories.

Snið:Country data Cape Verde – Republic of Cape Verde
  • Portuguese: Cabo Verde – República de Cabo Verde
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Central African Republic
  • French: République Centrafricaine
  • Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Chad – Republic of Chad Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Chile – Republic of Chile
  • Spanish: Chile – República de Chile
Widely recognized member of the UN. Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands are "special territories" of Chile. The Desventuradas Islands and Isla Salas y Gómez are part of the Valparaíso Region.

Fáni China – People's Republic of China[15] Widely recognized member of the UN.[16] Commonly known as China, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has five autonomous regions: Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet.[5] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

It also claims:


Snið:Country data Taiwan China, Republic of Snið:Arrow Taiwan Snið:Arrow Other states

Snið:Country data Colombia – Republic of Colombia
  • Spanish: Colombia – República de Colombia
Widely recognized member of the UN. Colombia is an independent republic with 31 departments (including the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina) and one capital district (Bogotá).

Snið:Country data Comoros – Union of the Comoros Widely recognized member of the UN. The Comoros is a federation with autonomous islands.[5][7] The Comoros dispute the French sovereignty over Mayotte, the Glorioso Islands, and Banc du Geyser.[8]

Snið:Country data Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa)[22]
  • French: Congo – République Démocratique du Congo
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Congo, Republic of the (Congo-Brazzaville)
  • French: Congo – République du Congo
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica
  • Spanish: Costa Rica – República de Costa Rica
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Côte d'Ivoire – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
  • French: Côte d'Ivoire – République de Côte d'Ivoire
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Croatia – Republic of Croatia
  • Croatian: Hrvatska – Republika Hrvatska
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Cuba – Republic of Cuba
  • Spanish: Cuba – República de Cuba
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Cuban area of Guantánamo Bay is, along with the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, under the permanent control (with no claim of sovereignty) of the United States, which pays rent under terms of the Cuban-American Treaty of 1903.

Snið:Country data Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus
  • Greek: Κύπρος – Κυπριακή ΔημοκρατίαSnið:Rom
  • Turkish: Kıbrıs – Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
Widely recognized[23] member of the UN and the EU.[9] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus, recognized only by Turkey.

Snið:Country data Czech Republic[24]
  • Czech: Česko – Česká republika
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

D[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Fáni Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark
  • Danish: Danmark – Kongeriget Danmark
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

The Kingdom of Denmark also includes two autonomous areas. For more information, see Rigsfællesskabet.


Fáni Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti
  • French: Djibouti – République de Djibouti
  • Arabic: جيبوتي – جمهورية جيبوتيSnið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
  • English: Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Dominican Republic Widely recognized member of the UN.

E[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Snið:Country data East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[25]
  • Tetum: Timor Lorosa'e – Repúblika Demokrátika Timor Lorosa'e
  • Portuguese: Timor-Leste – República Democrática de Timor-Leste
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador
  • Spanish: Ecuador – República del Ecuador
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador
  • Spanish: El Salvador – República de El Salvador
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea
  • Spanish: Guinea Ecuatorial – República de Guinea Ecuatorial
  • French: Guinée Équatoriale – République de Guinée Équatoriale
  • Portuguese: Guiné Equatorial – República da Guiné Equatorial
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Eritrea – State of Eritrea Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Estonia – Republic of Estonia Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

Fáni Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
  • Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ – የኢትዮጵያ ፈደራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክSnið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN. Ethiopia is a federation[7] divided into regions and chartered cities.

F[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Fáni Fiji – Republic of the Fiji Islands
  • Fijian: Viti – Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti
  • English: Fiji – Republic of the Fiji Islands
  • Hindustani:[26] फ़िजी / فِجی – फ़िजी गणराज्य / فِجی رپبلک

Snið:Rom[27]

Widely recognized member of the UN. Fiji has an autonomous region (dependency), Rotuma.[5]

Fáni Finland – Republic of Finland
  • Finnish: Suomi – Suomen tasavalta
  • Swedish: Finland – Republiken Finland
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

Fáni France – French Republic
  • French: France – République française
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] The French overseas regions/departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion) are legally part of France and France possesses the uninhabited Clipperton Island. French sovereignty also includes the overseas territories of:

French sovereignty over Bassas da India, Europa Island and Juan de Nova Island is disputed by Madagascar, over Glorioso Islands by Madagascar, the Seychelles and the Comoros, over Tromelin Island by Mauritius and the Seychelles, and over Banc du Geyser by Madagascar and the Comoros.[8]


G[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Snið:Country data Gabon – Gabonese Republic
  • French: Gabon – République Gabonaise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia
  • English: The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Georgia Widely recognized member of the UN. Georgia has two divisions with autonomous statuses:[5]

In Abkhazia and South Ossetia (a former autonomous entity) de facto states inside the de jure territory of Georgia have been formed.


Fáni Germany – Federal Republic of Germany
  • German: Deutschland – Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Germany is a federation[7] divided into states (Länder).

Snið:Country data Ghana – Republic of Ghana
  • English: Ghana – Republic of Ghana
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Greece – Hellenic Republic
  • Greek: Ελλάδα – Ελληνική ΔημοκρατίαSnið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Greece has sovereignty over Mount Athos, an autonomous monastic state that is jointly governed by the multi-national "Holy Community" on the mountain and the Civil Governor appointed by the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and spiritually comes under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

Snið:Country data Grenada Widely recognized member of the UN. Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

Snið:Country data Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala
  • Spanish: Guatemala – República de Guatemala
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Guinea – Republic of Guinea
  • French: Guinée – République de Guinée
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau
  • Portuguese: Guiné-Bissau – República da Guiné-Bissau
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
  • English: Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Widely recognized member of the UN.

H[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Snið:Country data Haiti – Republic of Haiti Widely recognized member of the UN. Haiti claims the uninhabited United States possession of Navassa Island.[8]

Holy See Snið:Arrow Vatican City

Snið:Country data Honduras – Republic of Honduras
  • Spanish: Honduras – República de Honduras
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Hungary – Republic of Hungary
  • Hungarian: Magyarország – Magyar Köztársaság
  • German: Ungarn – Republik Ungarn
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

I[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Fáni Iceland – Republic of Iceland Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni India – Republic of India Widely recognized member of the UN. India is a federation[7] divided into states and union territories. The Indian sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh is disputed by the People's Republic of China.[8] India claims sovereignty over all of Jammu and Kashmir and administers part of Kashmir.[21]

Fáni Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia Widely recognized member of the UN. Indonesia has five provinces with special status, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Yogyakarta Special Region, Papua, West Papua, and Jakarta Special Capital Region.[5] Separatist governments in exile claim independence for the Republic of the South Moluccas and the Republic of West Papua.[29]

Snið:Country data Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran Widely recognized member of the UN. Divided into provinces and counties

Snið:Country data Iraq – Republic of Iraq Widely recognized member of the UN. Iraq's constitution labels the country as a federation[7][30] divided into regions, governorates and the capital district. At present the only region is Iraqi Kurdistan.

Snið:Country data Ireland[31] Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

Snið:Country data Israel – State of Israel Widely recognized member of the UN (Not recognized as a state by 20 countries).[32] Israel occupies East Jerusalem, the Golan Heights and parts of the West Bank. These areas are not internationally recognized as being part of Israel.[8] Israel no longer has a permanent military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement but is still the occupying power under International law, though this status is disputed.[33][34][35][36][37][38]

Fáni Italy – Italian Republic
  • Italian: Italia – Repubblica Italiana
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Italy has 5 autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[5]

Ivory Coast Snið:Arrow Côte d'Ivoire

J[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Fáni Jamaica Widely recognized member of the UN. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

Fáni Japans Japan Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
  • Arabic: الاردن – المملكة الأردنّيّة الهاشميّة Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

K[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Fáni Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасы/Qazaqstan Respwblïkası
  • Russian: Республика Казахстан/Respublika Kazakhstan
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Kenya – Republic of Kenya
  • English: Kenya – Republic of Kenya
  • Swahili: Kenya – Jamhuri ya Kenya
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
  • Gilbertese: Kiribati – Ribaberikin Kiribati
  • English: Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data North Korea – Democratic People's Republic of Korea Widely recognized member of the UN. North Korea is not recognized by four UN members: Japan, France, Estonia and South Korea.

Snið:Country data South Korea – Republic of Korea Widely recognized member of the UN. South Korea is not recognized by one UN member, North Korea.

Kosovo Snið:Arrow Other states

Snið:Country data Kuwait – State of Kuwait Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic
  • Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан – Кыргыз Республикасы Snið:Rom
  • Russian: Кыргызстан – Кыргызская республика Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

L[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Snið:Country data Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic
  • Lao: ນລາວ – ສາທາລະນະລັດປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Latvia – Republic of Latvia
  • Latvian: Latvija – Latvijas Republika
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

Snið:Country data Lebanon – Republic of Lebanon Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
  • English: Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
  • Sotho: Lesotho – Mmuso wa Lesotho
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Liberia – Republic of Liberia
  • English: Liberia – Republic of Liberia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Libya – Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
  • Arabic: ليبيا – الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الإشتراكية العظمى Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein
  • German: Liechtenstein – Fürstentum Liechtenstein
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

Snið:Country data Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
  • Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg – Groussherzogdem Lëtzebuerg
  • French: Luxembourg – Grand-Duché du Luxembourg
  • German: Luxemburg – Großherzogtum Luxemburg
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

M[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Snið:Country data Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia Widely recognized member of the UN, provisionally referred to by the UN and a number of countries and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", see Macedonia naming dispute.

Snið:Country data Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar
  • Malagasy: Madagasikara – Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
  • French: Madagascar – Republique de Madagascar
Widely recognized member of the UN. Madagascar claims the French possessions of the Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Banc du Geyser.[8]

Fáni Malawi – Republic of Malawi
  • English: Malawi – Republic of Malawi
  • Chewa: Malaŵi – Mfuko la Malaŵi
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Malaysia - Federation of Malaysia
  • English: Malaysia - Federation of Malaysia
  • Malay: Malaysia - Persekutuan Malaysia
  • Chinese: 马来西亚 - Mă Lái Xī Yà
  • Tamil: மலேசியா
Widely recognized member of the UN. Malaysia is a federation[7] divided into states and federal territories. Malaysia claims part of the Spratly Islands.[12]

Snið:Country data Maldives – Republic of Maldives Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Mali – Republic of Mali
  • French: Mali – République du Mali
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Malta – Republic of Malta
  • Maltese: Malta – Repubblika ta' Malta
  • English: Malta – Republic of Malta
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

Snið:Country data Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
  • Marshallese: Aorōkin M̧ajeļ – Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ
  • English: Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Marshall Islands claim the United States territory of Wake Island.[8]

Snið:Country data Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania
  • Arabic: موريتانيا – الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية Snið:Rom
  • French: Mauritanie – République Islamique de la Mauritanie
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius Widely recognized member of the UN. Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[5] Mauritius claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French island of Tromelin.[8]

Snið:Country data Mexico – United Mexican States
  • Spanish: México – Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Widely recognized member of the UN. Mexico is a federation[7] divided into 31 states and one federal district.

Snið:Country data Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
  • English: Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United States. Micronesia is a federation[7] divided into states.

Snið:Country data Moldova – Republic of Moldova Widely recognized member of the UN. See Transnistria for the de facto state inside the de jure territory of Moldova.

Snið:Country data Monaco – Principality of Monaco
  • French: Monaco – Principauté de Monaco
  • Monegasque: Múnegu – Principatu de Múnegu
  • Italian: Monaco - Principato di Monaco
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Mongolia Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Montenegro Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco Widely recognized member of the UN. Morocco claims sovereignty over the Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputes the Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas.[8]

Fáni Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique
  • Portuguese: Moçambique – República de Moçambique
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Myanmar Snið:Arrow Burma

N[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Nagorno-Karabakh Snið:Arrow Other states

Fáni Namibia – Republic of Namibia
  • English: Namibia – Republic of Namibia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Nauru – Republic of Nauru
  • Nauruan: Naoero – Ripublik Naoero
  • English: Nauru – Republic of Nauru
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
  • Nepali: नेपाल – संघिय लोकतन्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Kingdom of the Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • Dutch: Nederland – Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
  • Papiamentu: Hulanda (or Ulanda) - Reino di Hulanda
  • English: Netherlands - Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • Frisian: Nederlân - Keninkryk fan de Nederlannen
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of three countries which each enjoy a great amount of autonomy:

The designation Netherlands thus legally only refers to one of the Kingdom's constituent countries. The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU,[9] but Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles are not part of the EU.


Snið:Country data New Zealand Widely recognized member of the UN. New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm[4] and has responsibilities for the two free associated states of:

The dependent territory of:

New Zealand also claims sovereignty over parts of Antarctica as:


Fáni Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua
  • Spanish: Nicaragua – República de Nicaragua
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Niger – Republic of Niger
  • French: Niger – République du Niger
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • English: Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Hausa: Najeriya - Kasar Najeriya
  • Yorùbá: Naìjírìà - Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìnira Àpapọ̀ Ilẹ̀ Naìjírìà
  • Igbo: Naigeria - Republic ndi Naigeria
Widely recognized member of the UN. Nigeria is a federation[7] divided into 36 states and one federal territory.

Northern Cyprus Snið:Arrow Other states

North Korea Snið:Arrow Korea, Democratic People's Republic of

Fáni Norway – Kingdom of Norway Widely recognized member of the UN. Svalbard is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Spitsbergen Treaty. The overseas uninhabited possessions of Bouvet Island and Jan Mayen are integral parts of Norway. The Norwegian claim of Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) as part of Norway is suspended.[45]

O[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Fáni Oman – Sultanate of Oman Widely recognized member of the UN.

P[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Snið:Country data Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
  • Urdu: پاکستان – اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان Snið:Rom
  • English: Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Widely recognized member of the UN. Pakistan is a federation[7] divided into provinces and territories. Pakistan claims sovereignty over the whole of Kashmir, but administers only part of it.[21]

Snið:Country data Palau – Republic of Palau
  • Palauan: Belau – Beluu er a Belau
  • English: Palau – Republic of Palau
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United States.

The Palestinian National Authority Snið:Arrow Other states

Snið:Country data Panama – Republic of Panama
  • Spanish: Panamá – República de Panamá
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  • English: Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  • Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini – Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini
Widely recognized member of the UN. Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[4] and also has the autonomous Region of Bougainville.[5]

Snið:Country data Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay
  • Guarani: Paraguái – Tetã Paraguái
  • Spanish: Paraguay – República del Paraguay
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Persia Snið:Arrow Iran

Snið:Country data Peru – Republic of Peru
  • Spanish: Perú – República del Perú
  • Aymara : Piruw – Piruw Mamallaqta
  • Quechua: Piruw – Piruw Suyu
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
  • Filipino/Tagalog: Pilipinas – Republika ng Pilipinas
  • English: Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
  • Spanish: Filipinas - República de Filipinas
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Philippines has the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.[5] The Philippines administers Scarborough Shoal and most of the Kalayaan Islands and claims sovereignty over the unoccupied Macclesfield Bank and Sabah. Sabah is currently administered by Malaysia.[12]

Snið:Country data Poland – Republic of Poland
  • Polish: Polska – Rzeczpospolita Polska
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

Snið:Country data Portugal – Portuguese Republic Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Portugal has two autonomous regions:

Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over:


Pridnestrovie Snið:Arrow Other states, Transnistria

Q[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Fáni Qatar – State of Qatar Widely recognized member of the UN.

R[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Snið:Country data Romania Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

Fáni Russia – Russian Federation Widely recognized member of the UN. Russia is a federation[7][46] divided into Subjects of Russia (oblasts, republics, autonomous okrugs, krays, and federal cities).
Several of the federal subjects are republics acting as ethnic autonomies:[5]

Snið:Country data Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda
  • KinyaRwanda: Rwanda – Repubulika y'u Rwanda
  • French: Rwanda – République du Rwanda
  • English: Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda
Widely recognized member of the UN.

S[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Snið:Arrow Other states

Snið:Country data Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
  • English: Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[4] and is a federation[7] of the islands.

Snið:Country data Saint Lucia Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

Snið:Country data Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • English: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

Snið:Country data Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
  • Samoan: Sāmoa – Mālo Tuto'atasi o Sāmoa
  • English: Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data San Marino – Republic of San Marino
  • Italian: San Marino – Repubblica di San Marino
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
  • Portuguese: São Tomé e Príncipe – República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe
Widely recognized member of the UN. São Tomé and Príncipe has an autonomous province, Príncipe.[5]

Snið:Country data Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Arabic: السعودية – المملكة العربيّة السّعوديّة Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Senegal – Republic of Senegal
  • French: Sénégal – République du Sénégal
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Serbia – Republic of Serbia Widely recognized member of the UN. Serbia considers itself to have two autonomous provinces,[5] though most of Kosovo is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo, which does not have general recognition.

Snið:Country data Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
  • English: Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
  • French: Seychelles – République des Seychelles
  • Seselwa: Sesel - Repiblik Sesel
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Seychelles claim the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French Glorioso Islands and Tromelin Island.[8]

Snið:Country data Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
  • English: Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Singapore – Republic of Singapore
  • English: Singapore – Republic of Singapore
  • Malay: Singapura – Republik Singapura
  • Chinese: 新加坡 – 新加坡共和国 Snið:Rom
  • Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் – சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Slovakia – Slovak Republic
  • Slovak: Slovensko – Slovenská republika
  • Hungarian: Szlovákia - Szlovák Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

Snið:Country data Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia
  • Slovenian: Slovenija – Republika Slovenija
  • Italian: Slovenia - Repubblica slovena
  • Hungarian: Szlovénia – a Szlovén Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

Snið:Country data Solomon Islands Widely recognized member of the UN. The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

Fáni Somalia – Republic of Somalia
  • Somali: Soomaaliya – Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya
  • Arabic: الصومال – جمهورية الصومال Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN. Somalia is presently fragmented with its Transitional National Government. Somalia disputed the Yemenite sovereignty over Socotra.[8] See Somaliland for the de facto country in north of Somalia.

Somaliland Snið:Arrow Other states

Fáni South Africa – Republic of South Africa
  • English: South Africa – Republic of South Africa
  • Afrikaans: Suid-Afrika – Republiek van Suid-Afrika
  • Xhosa: Mzantsi Afrika – IRiphabliki yaseMzantsi Afrika
  • Zulu: Ningizimu Afrika – IRiphabliki yaseNingizimu Afrika
  • Southern Ndebele: Sewula Afrika – IRiphabliki yeSewula Afrika
  • Northern Sotho: Afrika-Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika-Borwa
  • Sotho: Afrika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika Borwa
  • Tswana: Aforika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Aforika Borwa
  • Swati: Ningizimu Afrika – IRiphabhulikhi yeNingizimu Afrika
  • Venda: Afurika Tshipembe – Riphabuḽiki ya Afurika Tshipembe
  • Tsonga: Afrika Dzonga – Riphabliki ra Afrika Dzonga
Widely recognized member of the UN.

South Korea Snið:Arrow Korea, Republic of

South Ossetia Snið:Arrow Other states

Snið:Country data Spain – Kingdom of Spain
  • Spanish: España – Reino de España
  • Catalan: Espanya – Regne d'Espanya
  • Occitan: Espanha – Reialme d'Espanha
  • Basque: Espainia – Espainiako Erresuma
  • Galician: España – Reino de España
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] Spain is divided into autonomous communities and cities. The sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas is disputed by Morocco. The sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga is disputed by Portugal. Spain disputes the British sovereignty over Gibraltar.[8]

Fáni Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
  • Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා – ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය Snið:Rom
  • Tamil: இலங்கை – இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சமத்துவ குடியரசு Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN. Located on the better-known Island of Ceylon.

Snið:Country data Sudan – Republic of the Sudan Widely recognized member of the UN. Sudan is a federation[7] divided into states and has one autonomous region, Southern Sudan, formed out of the Southern Sudanese states.[5]

Snið:Country data Suriname – Republic of Suriname
  • Dutch: Suriname – Republiek Suriname
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
  • English: Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
  • Swati: eSwatini – Umbuso weSwatini
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden
  • Swedish: Sverige – Konungariket Sverige
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9]

Fáni Switzerland – Swiss Confederation
  • German: Schweiz – Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft
  • French: Suisse – Confédération Suisse
  • Italian: Svizzera – Confederazione Svizzera
  • Raeto-Romance: Svizra – Confederaziun Svizra
  • Latin: Helvetia - Confoederatio Helvetica
Widely recognized member of the UN. Switzerland is a federation[7] divided into cantons.

Snið:Country data Syria – Syrian Arab Republic
  • Arabic: سورية – الجمهوريّة العربيّة السّوريّة Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Golan Heights are annexed by Israel. Syria disputed the Turkish sovereignty over Hatay Province.[8]

T[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Taiwan Snið:Arrow Other states

Snið:Country data Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan
  • Tajik: Тоҷикистон – Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN. Tajikistan also has the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[5]

Snið:Country data Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
  • Swahili: Tanzania – Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
  • English: Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
Widely recognized member of the UN. Tanzania is a federacy with an autonomous status for Zanzibar.[5]

Snið:Country data Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand
  • Thai: ประเทศไทย – ราชอาณาจักรไทย Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Timor-Leste Snið:Arrow East Timor

Snið:Country data Togo – Togolese Republic
  • French: Togo – République Togolaise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
  • Tongan: Tonga – Pule'anga Fakatu'i 'o Tonga
  • English: Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Transnistria Snið:Arrow Other states

Snið:Country data Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
  • English: Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Widely recognized member of the UN. Trinidad and Tobago has an autonomous island, Tobago.[5]

Snið:Country data Tunisia – Republic of Tunisia
  • Arabic: تونس – الجمهورية التونسية Snið:Rom
  • French: Tunisie - République du Tunisie
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Turkey – Republic of Turkey
  • Turkish: Türkiye – Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
  • Kurdish: Tirkiye – Komara Tirkiyeyê
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Turkmenistan Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Tuvalu Widely recognized member of the UN. Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[4]

U[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Fáni Uganda – Republic of Uganda
  • English: Uganda – Republic of Uganda
  • Swahili: Uganda – Jamhuri ya Uganda
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Ukraine Widely recognized member of the UN. Ukraine has one autonomous republic:[5]

Snið:Country data United Arab Emirates
  • Arabic: دولة الإمارات العربيّة المتّحدة Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN. The United Arab Emirates is a federation[7] divided into emirates.

Fáni United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • English: United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
  • Scottish Gaelic: Rìoghachd Aonaichte na Breatainn Mòire agus Èireann a Tuath
  • Irish: Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Thuaisceart Éireann
  • Scots: Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Ireland
  • Cornish: Ruwvaneth Unys Breten Veur hag Iwerdhon Gledh
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[9] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[4] divided into four parts:

The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:

The British Monarch has direct sovereignty over these, which are mostly self-governing:


Fáni United States – United States of America
  • English: United States – United States of America
  • Hawaiian: ʻAmelika Hui - ‘Amelika Hui Pū ‘ia
  • Spanish: Estados Unidos - Estados Unidos de América
  • French: États-Unis - États-Unis d'Amérique
Widely recognized member of the UN. The United States is a federation[7] divided into 50 states, one federal district, and one incorporated territory (Palmyra Atoll). The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:

In addition, there are uninhabited possessions of the United States in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Petrel Islands (disputed with Colombia and Jamaica), Serranilla Bank (disputed with Colombia), Wake Island (somewhat disputed by the Marshall Islands) as well as Navassa Island (disputed by Haiti).[8]


Snið:Country data Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay
  • Spanish: Uruguay – República Oriental del Uruguay
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan
  • Uzbek: Ўзбекистон – Ўзбекистон Республикаси Snið:Rom
Widely recognized member of the UN. Uzbekistan has one autonomous republic:[5]

V[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Snið:Country data Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
  • Bislama: Vanuatu – Ripablik blong Vanuatu
  • English: Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
  • French: Vanuatu – République du Vanuatu
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Snið:Country data Vatican City – State of the Vatican City
  • Latin: Civitas Vaticana – Status Civitatis Vaticanæ
  • Italian: Città del Vaticano – Stato della Città del Vaticano
Widely recognized country. The Holy See, a sovereign entity recognized by 176 countries, administers the territory of Vatican City; the Holy See is a permanent observer of the UN in the category of "Non-member State."[47] Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, with the latter being the Bishop of the Archdiocese of Rome and therefore, ex officio sovereign of Vatican City. The Holy See also administers a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy and in many other countries (Apostolic Nunciatures).

Snið:Country data Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
  • Spanish: Venezuela – República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Widely recognized member of the UN. Venezuela is a federation[7] divided into states, one federal dependency and one federal district.

Fáni Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  • Vietnamese: Việt Nam – Cộng hòa Xã hội Chủ nghĩa Việt Nam
Widely recognized member of the UN. Vietnam claims sovereignty over the Paracel[20] and Spratly Islands.[12]

W[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


X[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Y[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Fáni Yemen – Republic of Yemen Widely recognized member of the UN. The Yemenite sovereignty over Socotra is disputed by Somalia.[8]

Z[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Fáni Zambia – Republic of Zambia
  • English: Zambia – Republic of Zambia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Fáni Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
  • English: Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
  • Ndebele: Zimbabwe - Republic of Zimbabwe
  • Shona: Zimbabwe - Republic of Zimbabwe
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Other states[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

Snið:Mainlist This annex lists states that claim sovereignty and have control over (part of) their claimed territories, but due to disputes over their legitimacy, do not have normal diplomatic relations with the majority of sovereign states. None of the states in this annex list are UN member states. Entities considered to be micronations are not included.

Name in English and the official languages of the state Information on status and recognition of sovereignty

Fáni Abkhazia: Republic of Abkhazia De facto independent state recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, South Ossetia, Transnistria and Nauru.[48][49] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.

Snið:Country data Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo De facto independent state that is recognised by Snið:Kosovorecognition UN member states and by Taiwan (Republic of China). Claimed in whole by the Republic of Serbia as part of its Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. In turn, the Republic of Kosovo claims the part of Kosovo controlled by the Republic of Serbia and still administered by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). An ethnic Serbian area, North Kosovo, is largely autonomous and not under Kosovo control.

Snið:Country data Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
  • Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ – Լեռնային Ղարաբաղի ՀանրապետությունSnið:Rom
De facto independent state that is recognised only by Transnistria. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Azerbaijan.[50]

Snið:Country data Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
  • Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs – Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti
De facto independent state that is recognised only by Turkey. It was accepted as an observer state of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference under the name of the Turkish Cypriot State since 1979. In addition, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic regards TRNC as sovereign but Azerbaijan (the sovereign state that Nakhichevan belongs to) has not followed suit. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[51]

Snið:Country data Palestine Palestine[52][53] Palestine has observer status at United Nations General Assembly and maintains a permanent observer mission at the UN Headquarters[54] The declared State of Palestine is recognized by more than 100 countries, though with varying territorial borders, or even none. In foreign relations, the State of Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization. The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited control over parts of the West Bank, the rest of which is controlled by Israel, while the Gaza Strip is controlled by Hamas.

Snið:Country data SADR – Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
  • Arabic: الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية Snið:Rom
De facto independent state recognized by 81 other states. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of the Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf , Algeria.

Fáni Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland
  • Somali: Soomaaliland – Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland
  • Arabic: ارض الصومال – جمهورية ارض الصومال Snið:Rom
De facto independent state not diplomatically recognized by any other state, claimed in whole by the Somali Republic.[55]

Snið:Country data South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia
  • Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон – Республикæ Хуссар ИрыстонSnið:Rom
  • Russian: Южная Осетия – Республика Южная ОсетияSnið:Rom
De facto independent state recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela, Abkhazia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[48]

Snið:Country data Taiwan – Republic of China[15] A state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas, and part of the Spratly Islands[12] and has not renounced claims over the territory of the PRC and Mongolia.[57] The Republic of China is currently recognised by Snið:ROCrecognition including the Holy See. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[19] The Republic of China participates in the World Health Organization and a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, International Olympic Committee and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly Fáni Taípei.

Snið:Country data Transnistria – Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (Pridnestrovie, Trans-Dniester)
  • Russian: Приднестровье: Приднестровская Молдавская РеспубликаSnið:Rom
  • Ukrainian: Придністров'я: Придністровська Молдавська РеспублікаSnið:Rom
  • Moldovan: Транснистрия – Република Молдовеняскэ НистрянэSnið:Rom
De facto independent state, recognized by Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.[58]

Criteria for inclusion[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

This list derives its definition of a state from Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention of 1933. According to the Convention, a state should possess the following qualifications:

  • (a) a permanent population
  • (b) a defined territory
  • (c) government
  • (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states.

In respect of the last qualification, the role of recognition by other states can often be crucial since it implies acceptance into the international community.[59] The list includes all states which are often regarded as satisfying these criteria and claim to be sovereign and independent. However, in many cases, whether an entity satisfies the Montevideo Convention criteria is disputed. It is also important to note that there is a divergence of opinion in international law on whether the Montevideo Convention criteria alone are sufficient qualities of statehood. Links to different theories on this question are provided below.

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 203 entities:

Excluded from the list above are the following noteworthy entities that do not satisfy all the qualifications in the Montevideo Convention or which do not claim to be sovereign and independent:

  • Antarctica as a whole has no government and no permanent population. Seven states claim portions of Antarctica and five of these have reciprocally recognised one another's claims.[61] These claims, which are regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, are neither recognised nor disputed by any other signatory state.[62]
  • Snið:Country data EU The European Union, a sui generis supranational organisation which currently has 27 member states. The member states have transferred a measure of their legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, and as such the EU has some elements of sovereignty, without generally being considered a sovereign state. The European Union does not claim to be a sovereign state and has only limited capacity for relations with other states.
  • Snið:Country data Sovereign Military Order of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is a United Nations observer in the category "Other entities having received a standing invitation to participate as observers in the sessions and the work of the General Assembly and maintaining permanent offices at Headquarters."[63] The order has bi-lateral diplomatic relations with 104 states, but has no territory other than extraterritorial areas within Rome.[64] Its website asserts that "it has always been recognised by nations as an independent subject of international law."[65] The order's Constitution states: "The Order is a subject of international law and exercises sovereign functions." [66] Although the order frequently asserts its sovereignty, including in its name, it does not claim to be a sovereign state. It lacks a defined territory. As with other embassies, Italy could theoretically break diplomatic relations with the order and oblige the non-Italian members to leave Italian territory. Since all its members are citizens of other states, almost all of them live in their native countries, and those who reside in the order's extraterritorial properites in Rome do so only in connection with their official duties, the order lacks the characteristic of having a permanent population.
  • States forming part of a federal union, for which, see: federated state. Such entities do not claim to be independent, as their respective governments have surrendered sovereignty to a federal government.
  • Dependent territories that are under the sovereignity of states from the above lists.
  • Uncontacted peoples who exercise varying degrees of de facto soveriegnty over the areas under their control, but either live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are currently too data deficent to be definitively known.
  • Entities considered to be micronations are not included, even though they generally claim to be sovereign and independent, and try to enter into diplomatic relations with states that are listed. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. The permanent populations of micronations are generally small.

Bibliography[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

  • Bissio, Roberto Remo, ritstjóri (1995). The World: A Third World Guide : 1995/96. Montevideo: Instituto del Tercer Mundo. ISBN 9780855982911. OCLC 476299738.
  • World of Information (Firm), and International Chamber of Commerce (2003). Middle East Review 2003/04: The Economic and Business Report (27th. útgáfa). London: Kogan Page. bls. 161. ISBN 9780749440664. OCLC 51992589.

See also[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

Notes[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

  1. The names of the items in the list are given in English and include both an English version of the short official names (e.g. Afghanistan) and an English version of the (longer) official names (e.g. Islamic Republic of Afghanistan), as well as the same names in the (de jure or de facto) official languages on national level of the entity. Main source for the names in the official languages are the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the CIA World Fact Book (both retrieved 14 August 2007). If needed, they have been transliterated into Romanized characters, but original scripts (such as Cyrillic or Chinese characters) are included. When possible, the romanization preferred by the country has been used.The sources for both flag and names, official languages and romanizations are the main articles on these entities. When other sources are used, these sources are mentioned. See for a gallery of flags Gallery of sovereign-state flags.
  2. Information is included on
  3. 3,0 3,1 More information on separatism can be found at the List of active autonomist and secessionist movements and the main articles.
  4. 4,00 4,01 4,02 4,03 4,04 4,05 4,06 4,07 4,08 4,09 4,10 4,11 4,12 4,13 4,14 4,15 The Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states, see Sovereignty of the Realms.
  5. 5,00 5,01 5,02 5,03 5,04 5,05 5,06 5,07 5,08 5,09 5,10 5,11 5,12 5,13 5,14 5,15 5,16 5,17 5,18 5,19 5,20 For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
  6. Argentina is also named Argentine Nation for purposes of legislation.
  7. 7,00 7,01 7,02 7,03 7,04 7,05 7,06 7,07 7,08 7,09 7,10 7,11 7,12 7,13 7,14 7,15 7,16 7,17 7,18 7,19 7,20 7,21 7,22 More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
  8. 8,00 8,01 8,02 8,03 8,04 8,05 8,06 8,07 8,08 8,09 8,10 8,11 8,12 8,13 8,14 8,15 8,16 8,17 8,18 8,19 8,20 More information on territorial disputes can be found at the List of territorial disputes and the main articles.
  9. 9,00 9,01 9,02 9,03 9,04 9,05 9,06 9,07 9,08 9,09 9,10 9,11 9,12 9,13 9,14 9,15 9,16 9,17 9,18 9,19 9,20 9,21 9,22 9,23 9,24 9,25 9,26 The member countries of the European Union transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU.
  10. Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
  11. For more information about the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina, see Dayton Agreement and the text of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  12. 12,0 12,1 12,2 12,3 12,4 12,5 The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines (part), Malaysia (part), and Brunei (part). Except Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  13. Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
  14. The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  15. 15,0 15,1 The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as China, while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as Taiwan. The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
  16. The People's Republic of China is currently not recognized by 22 UN member states and the Holy See, which recognize the Republic of China. See: Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of the PRC.
  17. Government of Hong Kong
  18. Government of Macau
  19. 19,0 19,1 In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories currently under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN: most states recognize the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  20. 20,0 20,1 The Chinese sovereignty over the Paracel Islands is disputed by Vietnam and the Republic of China (see List of territorial disputes).
  21. 21,0 21,1 21,2 The sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed by India and Pakistan, smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China (and the Republic of China). De facto Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and China. See the List of territorial disputes.
  22. Abbreviated as DRC, and also known as Congo-Kinshasa; also formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  23. Cyprus is recognized by the Holy See and all UN member states except Turkey, see Foreign relations of Cyprus
  24. A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
  25. The government of East Timor uses Timor-Leste as the English translation.
  26. Hindustani uses both the Hindi and Urdu script
  27. Source for the romanization is Geonames.
  28. Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  29. See List of active autonomist and secessionist movements.
  30. Source: Iraqi constitution
  31. Ireland is often referred to as the Republic of Ireland (its official description but not its name). Sometimes this is done to distinguish Ireland from island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.
  32. Israel is currently not recognized as a state by 20 countries, see Foreign relations of Israel: No recognition or diplomatic relations.
  33. Israel and the Palestinians: Key terms, BBC Newswatch, accessed, 8 April 2009.
  34. Dore Gold, JCPA Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Vol. 5, No. 3, August 26, 2005.
  35. International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Vol. 7, No. 29 28 January 2008.
  36. Israeli MFA Address by Israeli Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel), January 22, 2008.
  37. Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status, University of Virginia School of Law, November 17, 2005.
  38. "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation" Human Rights Watch. October 29, 2004
  39. See Names of Japan for more detail.
  40. Some argue that Albanian is the second official language.
  41. Moldovan is often considered to be the same language as Romanian, see Moldovan language.
  42. E.g. the Federal Republic of Germany has diplomatic relations with the Cook Islands, Source: German foreign ministry, retrieved 14 August 2007. For more information: Foreign relations of the Cook Islands
  43. Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue, China Internet Information Center, retrieved 25 May 2009
  44. Tokelau remains a dependent territory after referendums. Source: New Zealand Herald, retrieved 8 August 2008
  45. The continent of Antarctica, including its outlying islands south of 60°S, are held in abeyance under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty. All claims are suspended. Claiming countries are Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom. There is also an informal Brazilian claim.
  46. Whether or not the Russian Federation is a genuine federation is a matter of dispute. See: Russian Federation section.
  47. Non-member States and Entities, Retrieved 2009-12-22
  48. 48,0 48,1 „Russia condemned for recognizing rebel regions“. CNN.com. 26. ágúst 2008. Sótt 26. ágúst 2008.
  49. „Tiny Nauru struts world stage by recognising breakaway republics“. Guardian.
  50. See Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh (17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  51. See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  52. Bissio, 1995, p. 433.
  53. Page, 2004, p. 161.
  54. Source for observership: UN Website.
  55. See Regions and territories: Somaliland (30 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  56. Romanization in Pinyin.
  57. „Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 8. október 2008.
  58. 'See Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester (13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  59. "State", pp. 512–3 in Penguin Dictionary of International Relations. Evans, Graham & Newnham, Jeffrey. 1998. (ISBN 0-14-051397-3). London: Penguin Books Ltd.
  60. Non-member States and Entities, Retrieved 2009-12-2
  61. Rogan-Finnemore, Michelle (2005), „What Bioprospecting Means for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean“, Í Von Tigerstrom, Barbara, International Law Issues in the South Pacific, Ashgate Publishing, bls. 204, ISBN 0754644197 "Australia, New Zealand, France, Norway and the United Kingdom reciprocally recognize the validity of each other's claims."
  62. CIA – the World Factbook – Antarctica – accessed 19 January 2008
  63. „Other entities having received a standing invitation to participate as observers in the sessions and the work of the General Assembly and maintaining permanent offices at Headquarters“. Sótt 22. desember 2009.
  64. Bilateral relations with countries, Retrieved 2009-12-22
  65. „What is the Order of Malta?“. Sótt 22. desember 2009.
  66. Chapter General of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta (12. janúar 1998). Constitutional Charter and Code of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta, promulgated 27 June 1961, revised by the Extraordinary Chapter General 28-30 April 1997, Article 3 "Sovereignty," Paragraph 1 (PDF). Rome: Tipografia Arte della Stampa. bls. 11.

References[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


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