Kynhneigð

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Kynhneigð er lýsing á því hvaða flokki (karl eða kona) af mannfólki einhver laðast tilfinningalega og/eða kynferðislega að.

Þrír helstu flokkarnir á kynhneigðarskalanum eru gagnkynhneigð, samkynhneigð, og tvíkynhneigð. Ekki er vitað hvað veldur mismunandi kynhneigð í mönnum, en talið er að það orsakist af samspili erfðaþátta, hormóna, og umhverfisþátta og að fólk hafi ekki val um það.[1][2][3] Vísbendingar eru um að umhverfi í móðurkviði ásamt erfðaþáttum geti spilað inn í.[4][5] Vísbendingar benda ekki til þess að kynhneigð ráðist af uppeldi.[6] Gagnkynhneigð er algengasta kynhneigðin, en mismunandi kynhneigðir eru nú taldar vera eðlilegur breytileiki innan margra dýrategunda.[7][8] Sálfræðimeðferðir og önnur inngrip hafa ekki sýnt að þau geti haft áhrif á kynhneigð.[9]

Í kringum 3,5% af fullorðnum skilgreina sig sem sam- eða tvíkynhneigð samkvæmt könnun sem gerð var í Bandaríkjunum 2011.[10][11] Á milli 2% og 11% af fullorðnum hafa átt í einhverju kynferðislegu sambandi við einstakling af sama kyni.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] Í breskri könnun frá 2010 sögðust 95% Breta skilgreina sig sem gagnkynhneigða, 1,5% sem sam- eða tvíkynhneigða, og 3,5% voru óvissir eða svöruðu ekki spurningunni.[22][23]

Fólk upplifir kynhneigð á mismunandi máta. Þar að auki eru skilgreiningar og flokkanir hvorki þær sömu milli samfélaga né milli einstaklinga.

Oft haldast tilfinningaleg og kynferðisleg aðlöðun í hendur, en það þarf ekki að vera svo.

Þeir sem finna ekki fyrir aðlöðun að öðru fólki eru stundum sagðir án kynhneigðar (eikynhneigðir eða vankynhneigðir). Breytilegt er hvort það fólk hafi kynhvöt eða ekki.

Kynhneigðarskalinn[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

Nokkur fjölbreytileiki er í birtingarmyndum kynhneigðar og kynhegðunar fólks og hafa sumir lagt til að þetta megi setja fram á skala og lýsa kynhneigð frá gangkynhneigð til samkynhneigðar. Þekktasti skalinn er Kinsey-skalinn sem líffræðingurinn Alfreð Kinsey setti fram árið 1948 í riti sýnu þar sem hann lýsti kynhegðun almennings. Ritið olli nokkurri hneysklun. Skalar sem þessi eru að miklu leyti einföldun, en þykja oft þægilegir til flokkunar:

Stig á Kinsey-skalanum Lýsing
0 Eingöngu gagnkynhneigð
1 Aðallega gagnkynhneigð, smá samkynhneigð
2 Aðallega gagnkynhneigð, en töluverð samkynhneigð
3 Jöfn gagnkynhneigð og samkynhneigð
4 Aðallega samkynhneigð, en töluverð gagnkynhneigð
5 Aðallega samkynhneigð, smá gagnkynhneigð
6 Eingöngu samkynhneigð
X Engin saga um kynferðisleg sambönd,

engin viðbrögð við kynferðislegum spurningum

Sumir upplifa kynhneigð sem óhaggandi fyrirbæri, aðrir upplifa kynhneigð sem breytilegan hlut.[24][25]

Heimildir[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

  1. Frankowski BL og American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence June 2004, „Sexual orientation and adolescents". Pediatrics. 113 (6): 1827–32. doi:10.1542/peds.113.6.1827 PMID 15173519
  2. Mary Ann Lamanna; Agnes Riedmann og Susan D Stewart (2014), Marriages, Families, and Relationships: Making Choices in a Diverse Society. Cengage Learning. bls: 82. ISBN 1305176898 Skoðað February 11, 2016. „The reason some individuals develop a gay sexual identity has not been definitively established  – nor do we yet understand the development of heterosexuality. The American Psychological Association (APA) takes the position that a variety of factors impact a person's sexuality. The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors...is shaped at an early age...[and evidence suggests] biological, including genetic or inborn hormonal factors, play a significant role in a person's sexuality (American Psychological Association 2010)."
  3. Gail Wiscarz Stuart (2014), Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences. bls: 502. ISBN 032329412X Skoðað February 11, 2016. „No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation."
  4. „Submission to the Church of England's Listening Exercise on Human Sexuality". . (The Royal College of Psychiatrists). Skoðað 13. júní 2013.
  5. Långström, N.; Rahman, Q.; Carlström, E. og Lichtenstein, P. (2008), „Genetic and Environmental Effects on Same-sex Sexual Behavior: A Population Study of Twins in Sweden". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 39 (1): 75–80. doi:10.1007/s10508-008-9386-1 PMID 18536986
  6. „Submission to the Church of England's Listening Exercise on Human Sexuality". . (The Royal College of Psychiatrists). Skoðað 13. júní 2013.
  7. „Sexual orientation, homosexuality and bisexuality". . (American Psychological Association). Geymt frá upphaflegu greininni 8. ágúst 2013. Skoðað August 10, 2013.
  8. „"Therapies" to change sexual orientation lack medical justification and threaten health". . (Pan American Health Organization). Geymt frá upphaflegu greininni 23. maí 2012. Skoðað 26. maí 2012.
  9. American Psychological Association: Resolution on Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts
  10. Gary Gates April 2011, „How Many People are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender?". . (The Williams Institute). Skoðað May 12, 2014.
  11. Gary Gates April 2011, „How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender?". (PDF) . (The Williams Institute).: 1.
  12. „The sexual behavior of men in the United States". Family Planning Perspectives. 25 (2) (1993).: 52–60. doi:10.2307/2136206 JSTOR 2136206 PMID 8491287
  13. Binson, Diane; Michaels, Stuart; Stall, Ron; Coates, Thomas J.; Gagnon, John H. og Catania, Joseph A. (1995), „Prevalence and Social Distribution of Men Who Have Sex with Men: United States and Its Urban Centers". The Journal of Sex Research. 32 (3): 245–54. doi:10.1080/00224499509551795 JSTOR 3812794
  14. „Sexual lifestyles and HIV risk". Nature. 360 (6403) December 1992.: 410–2. doi:10.1038/360410a0 PMID 1448163
  15. Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Snið:Page needed
  16. Wellings, K., Field, J., Johnson, A., & Wadsworth, J. (1994). Sexual behavior in Britain: The national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles. London, UK: Penguin Books.Snið:Page needed
  17. Investigators ACSF (1992), „AIDS and sexual behaviour in France". Nature. 360 (6403): 407–409. doi:10.1038/360407a0 PMID 1448162
  18. Bogaert AF September 2004, „The prevalence of male homosexuality: the effect of fraternal birth order and variations in family size". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 230 (1): 33–7. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2004.04.035 PMID 15275997 Bogaert argues that: "The prevalence of male homosexuality is debated. One widely reported early estimate was 10% (e.g., Marmor, 1980; Voeller, 1990). Some recent data provided support for this estimate (Bagley and Tremblay, 1998), but most recent large national samples suggest that the prevalence of male homosexuality in modern western societies, including the United States, is lower than this early estimate (e.g., 1–2% in Billy et al., 1993; 2–3% in Laumann et al., 1994; 6% in Sell et al., 1995; 1–3% in Wellings et al., 1994). It is of note, however, that homosexuality is defined in different ways in these studies. For example, some use same-sex behavior and not same-sex attraction as the operational definition of homosexuality (e.g., Billy et al., 1993); many sex researchers (e.g., Bailey et al., 2000; Bogaert, 2003; Money, 1988; Zucker and Bradley, 1995) now emphasize attraction over overt behavior in conceptualizing sexual orientation." (p. 33) Also: "...the prevalence of male homosexuality (in particular, same-sex attraction) varies over time and across societies (and hence is a "moving target") in part because of two effects: (1) variations in fertility rate or family size; and (2) the fraternal birth order effect. Thus, even if accurately measured in one country at one time, the rate of male homosexuality is subject to change and is not generalizable over time or across societies." (p. 33)
  19. „Prevalence and patterns of same-gender sexual contact among men". Science. 243 (4889) January 1989.: 338–48. doi:10.1126/science.2911744 PMID 2911744
  20. „The prevalence of homosexual behavior and attraction in the United States, the United Kingdom and France: results of national population-based samples". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 24 (3) June 1995.: 235–48. doi:10.1007/BF01541598 PMID 7611844
  21. Hope, Debra A (eds.) ((2009)). Contemporary Perspectives on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identities. . Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. 54 doi:10.1007/978-0-387-09556-1 ISBN 978-0-387-09555-4
  22. Harford, Tim 1. október 2010, „More or Less examines Office for National Statistics figures on gay, lesbian and bisexual people". . (BBC).
  23. „Measuring Sexual Identity : Evaluation Report, 2010". . (Office for National Statistics). 23. september 2010.
  24. „Question A2: Sexual orientation". . (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health). Geymt frá upphaflegu greininni 28. desember 2014. Skoðað 3. febrúar 2015.
  25. "LGBT-Sexual Orientation: What is Sexual Orientation?" Snið:Webarchive, the official web pages of APA. Accessed April 9, 2015

Tenglar[breyta | breyta frumkóða]