Rhizobium

Úr Wikipediu, frjálsa alfræðiritinu
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Rhizobium
Rhizobium tropici á agar.
Rhizobium tropici á agar.
Vísindaleg flokkun
Ríki: Bacteria
Fylking: Proteobacteria
Flokkur: Alphaproteobacteria
Ættbálkur: Rhizobiales
Ætt: Rhizobiaceae
Ættkvísl: Rhizobium
Frank 1889
Einkennistegund
Rhizobium leguminosarum
Species[1]

See text.

Rhizobium er ættkvísl Gram-neikvæðra jarðvegs baktería sem binda nítrógen. Rhizobium mynda innanfrumusamlíf í sambandi við rætur ertuættar og Parasponia.

Bakteríurnar búa í plöntufrumum í rótarhnýðum þar sem þau umbreyta nitri í lofti í ammoníak og gefa af sér nitursambönd svo sem glútamín eða ureide til plöntunnar. Á móti veitir plantan bakteríunum lífræn efni sem hún hefur myndað með ljóstillífun..[2] Þetta er gagnkvæmt hagkvæmt samlífi sem er einkennandi fyrir Rhizobium ættkvíslina.

Saga[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

Beijerinck í Niðurlöndum var fyrstur til að einangra og rækta örveru úr rótum ertuplantna 1888. Hann nefndi hana Bacillus radicicola, og er hún nú staðsett í Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology undir ættkvíslinni Rhizobium.


Tegundir[breyta | breyta frumkóða]


Phylogeny[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

Núverandi viðurkennt ættartré samkvæmt List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature [1] og National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[13] og ættartréð er byggt á 16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 frá The All-Species Living Tree Project [14]

Rhizobium lusitanum Valverde et al. 2006

Rhizobium rhizogenes (Riker et al. 1930) Young et al. 2001

Agrobacterium rubi Hildebrand 1940

Rhizobium multihospitium Han et al. 2008

Rhizobium tropici Martínez-Romero et al. 1991

Rhizobium miluonense Gu et al. 2008

Rhizobium leguminosarum (Frank 1879) Frank 1889 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Ramírez-Bahena et al. 2008[15]

Rhizobium endophyticum López-López et al. 2011

Rhizobium tibeticum Hou et al. 2009

Rhizobium etli Segovia et al. 1993

Rhizobium pisi Ramírez-Bahena et al. 2008

Rhizobium phaseoli Dangeard 1926 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Ramírez-Bahena et al. 2008

Rhizobium fabae Tian et al. 2008

Rhizobium hainanense Chen et al. 1997

Arthrobacter viscosus Gasdorf et al. 1965[16]

Rhizobium alamii Berge et al. 2009

Rhizobium mesosinicum Lin et al. 2009

Rhizobium sullae Squartini et al. 2002

Rhizobium indigoferae Wei et al. 2002

Rhizobium gallicum Amarger et al. 1997

Rhizobium yanglingense Tan et al. 2001

Rhizobium mongolense Van Berkum et al. 1998

Rhizobium oryzae Peng et al. 2008

Rhizobium loessense Wei et al. 2003

Rhizobium tubonense Zhang et al. 2011

Rhizobium cellulosilyticum García-Fraile et al. 2007

Rhizobium soli Yoon et al. 2010

Neorhizobium galegae Lindström 1989

Neorhizobium vignae Ren et al. 2011

Neorhizobium huautlense Wang et al. 1998

Neorhizobium alkalisoli Lu et al. 2009

Tilvísanir[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

  1. 1,0 1,1 J.P. Euzéby. Rhizobium. List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Sótt 2. maí 2012.
  2. Sawada H, Kuykendall LD, Young JM (2003). „Changing concepts in the systematics of bacterial nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts“. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 49 (3): 155–79. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.026484-0. PMID 21131504.
  3. NOTE: This strain was formerly named Blastobacter aggregatus.
  4. NOTE: This species was formerly known as R. leguminosarum sv. phaseoli.
  5. 5,0 5,1 Amarger N, Macheret V, Laguerre G. (1997). „Rhizobium gallicum sp. nov. and Rhizobium giardinii sp. nov., from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules“. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47 (4): 996–1006. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-4-996. PMID 9336898.
  6. 6,0 6,1 6,2 NOTE: R. gallicum and R. mongolense are 99.2% identical in their rDNA and may be the same species. It has been proposed by Silva et al. that R. mongolense and R. yanglingense be reclassified as R. gallicum sv. orientale.
  7. Diange, E. A.; Lee, S. S. (2013). „Rhizobium halotolerans sp. nov., Isolated from Chloroethylenes Contaminated Soil“. Current Microbiology. 66 (6): 599–605. doi:10.1007/s00284-013-0313-x. PMID 23377488.
  8. 8,0 8,1 Marek-Kozaczuk M, Leszcz A, Wielbo J, Wdowiak-Wróbel S, Skorupska A. (2013). „Rhizobium pisi sv. trifolii K3.22 harboring nod genes of the Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. trifolii cluster“. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 36 (4): 252–8. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2013.01.005. PMID 23507586.
  9. Kesari, V.; Ramesh, A. M.; Rangan, L. (2013). „Rhizobium pongamiae sp. nov. From Root Nodules of Pongamia pinnata“. BioMed Research International. 2013: 1–9. doi:10.1155/2013/165198.
  10. Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Deng, Zheng Shan; Zhao, Liang; Wei, Xiu Li; Wei, Ge Hong (2013). „Rhizobium qilianshanense sp. nov., a novel species isolated from root nodule of *Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge in China“. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 103 (3): 559–565. doi:10.1007/s10482-012-9840-x.
  11. Turdahon M, Osman G, Hamdun M, Yusuf K, Abdurehim Z, Abaydulla G, Abdukerim M, Fang C, Rahman E (2012). „Rhizobium tarimense sp. nov. isolated from soil in the ancient Khiyik river of Xinjiang, China“. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 63 (Pt 7): 2424–9. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.042176-0. PMID 23203621.
  12. Fang Wang, En Tao Wang, Li Juan Wu, Xin Hua Sui, Ying Li Jr., and Wen Xin Chen (2011). „Rhizobium vallis sp. nov., isolated from nodules of three leguminous species“. Int. J. Gen. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 61 (11): 2582–2588. doi:10.2323/jgam.49.155. PMID 12949698.
  13. Sayers; og fleiri. Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group“. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Sótt 2. maí 2012.
  14. All-Species Living Tree Project.„16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 (full tree)“ (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Sótt 2. maí 2012.
  15. This is the type species for the genus.
  16. Arthrobacter viscosus is currently classified in the Micrococcaceae. See Arthrobacter.

Tenglar[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

Snið:Authority control