Netluætt

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Netluætt
Urtica dioica
Vísindaleg flokkun
Ríki: Plönturíki (Plantae)
Skipting: Dulfrævingar (Magnoliophyta)
Flokkur: Tvíkímblöðungar (Magnoliopsida)
Ættbálkur: Rósabálkur (Rosales)
Ætt: Netluætt (Urticaceae)
Juss., 1789
Samheiti

Cecropiaceae C. C. Berg[1]

Netluætt (fræðiheiti: Urticaceae) er ætt blómstrandi plantna. Ættarheitið kemur frá ættkvíslinni Urtica. Margar tegundir netluættar hafa verið nýttar vegna trefjanna, þar á meðal netlur Urtica, Boehmeria nivea, Pipturus albidus og Debregeasia saeneb.

Til ættarinnar teljast um 2625 tegundir í 53 ættkvíslum samkvæmt Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew og Christenhusz og Byng (2016).[2] Stærsta ættkvíslin er Pilea (500 til 715 tegundir), Elatostema (300 tegundir), Urtica (80 tegundir), og Cecropia (75 tegundir). Cecropia er með margar myrmecophyte ("mauraplöntur", sem eru í sambýli við maura).[3]

Ættartré[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

Ættartré samkvæmt nýjustu erfðagreiningum:[4][5] (sjá einnig [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15])



Moraceae (outgroup)


Urticaceae

Urticeae


Laportea





Obetia



Urera (hluti)





Touchardia




Urera (hluti)



Poikilospermum









Girardinia




Dendrocnide



Discocnide






Nanocnide



Urtica (ásamt Hesperocnide)





Elatostemateae


Procris




Pellionia



Elatostema






Myriocarpa + Gyrotaenia




Lecanthus



Pilea (ásamt Sarcopilea)







Cecropieae


Coussapoa




Myrianthus



Cecropia






Leucosyke



Maoutia





Boehmerieae

Oreocnide




Phenax





Chamabainia





Gonostegia




Pouzolzia (hluti)




Neodistemon




Rousselia



Hemistylus








Pouzolzia (hluti)




Neraudia



Pipturus (ásamt Nothocnide)








Boehmeria (hluti)




Debregeasia




Astrothalamus




Archiboehmeria




Boehmeria (hluti)



Sarcochlamys











Forsskaoleeae

Forsskaolea




Didymodoxa



Droguetia (ásamt Australina)




Parietarieae

Parietaria




Soleirolia



Gesnouinia









Undirættir og ættkvíslir[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

Myndir[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

Tilvísanir[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

  1. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (17. janúar 2003). „Family: Urticaceae Juss., nom. cons“. Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Sótt 24. apríl 2008.
  2. Christenhusz, M. J. M., and Byng, J. W. (2016). „The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase“. Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  3. Chomicki G, Renner SS. (2015). „Phylogenetics and molecular clocks reveal the repeated evolution of ant-plants after the late Miocene in Africa and the early Miocene in Australasia and the Neotropics“. New Phytologist. 207 (2): 411–424. doi:10.1111/nph.13271. PMID 25616013.
  4. Wu Z-Y, Monro AK, Milne RI, Wang H, Liu J, Li D-Z. (2013). „Molecular phylogeny of the nettle family (Urticaceae) inferred from multiple loci of three genomes and extensive generic sampling“. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 69 (3): 814–827. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.06.022. PMID 23850510.
  5. Wu Z-Y, Milne RI, Chen C-J, Liu J, Wang H, Li D-Z. (2015). „Ancestral state reconstruction reveals rampant homoplasy of diagnostic morphological characters in Urticaceae, conflicting with current classification schemes“. PLoS ONE. 10 (11): e0141821. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141821. PMC 4631448. PMID 26529598.
  6. Sytsma KJ, Morawetz J, Pires JC, Morden CW. (2000). „Phylogeny of the Urticales based on three molecular data sets, with emphasis on relationships within Urticaceae“. American Journal of Botany. 87 (6): 162.
  7. Sytsma KJ, Morawetz J, Pires C, Nepokroeff M, Conti E, Zjhra M, Hall JC, Chase MW. (2002). „Urticalean rosids: Circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnLF, and ndhF sequences“ (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 89 (9): 1531–1546. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.9.1531. PMID 21665755.
  8. Hadiah JT, Quinn CJ, Conn BJ. (2003). „Phylogeny of Elatostema (Urticaceae) using chloroplast DNA data“. Telopea. 10 (1): 235–246. doi:10.7751/telopea20035618.
  9. Datwyler SL, Weiblen G. (2004). „On the origin of the fig: Phylogenetic relationships of Moraceae from ndhF sequences“. American Journal of Botany. 91 (5): 767–777. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.5.767. PMID 21653431.
  10. Zerega NJC, Clement WL, Datwyler SL, Weiblen GD. (2005). „Biogeography and divergence times in the mulberry family (Moraceae)“. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (2): 402–416. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.418.1442. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.07.004. PMID 16112884.
  11. Monro AK. (2006). „The revision of species-rich genera: A phylogenetic framework for the strategic revision of Pilea (Urticaceae) based on cpDNA, nrDNA, and morphology“. American Journal of Botany. 93 (3): 426–441. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.3.426. PMID 21646202.
  12. Hadiah JT, Conn BJ, Quinn CJ (2008). „Infra-familial phylogeny of Urticaceae, using chloroplast sequence data“. Australian Systematic Botany. 21 (5): 375–385. doi:10.1071/SB08041.
  13. Conn BJ, Hadiah JT (2009). „Nomenclature of tribes within the Urticaceae“. Kew Bulletin. 64 (2): 349–352. doi:10.1007/s12225-009-9108-4. JSTOR 20649663.
  14. Kim C, Deng T, Chase M, Zhang D-G, Nie Z-L, Sun H. (2015). „Generic phylogeny and character evolution in Urticeae (Urticaceae) inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA regions“. Taxon. 64 (1): 65–78. doi:10.12705/641.20.
  15. Treiber EL, Gaglioti EL, Romaniuc-Neto S, Madriñán S, Weiblen GD. (2016). „Phylogeny of the Cecropieae (Urticaceae) and the evolution of an ant–plant mutualism“. Systematic Botany. 41 (1): 56–66. doi:10.1600/036364416X690633. PMC 4103470.
  16. Deng Tao, Kim C, Zhang D-G, Zhang J-W, Li Z-M, Nie Z-L, Sun H. (2013). Zhengyia shennongensis: A new bulbiliferous genus and species of the nettle family (Urticaceae) from central China exhibiting parallel evolution of the bulbil trait“. Taxon. 62 (1): 89–99. JSTOR 24389315.

Viðbótarlesning[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

  • Pignatti, Sandro (1982). Flora d'Italia (Italian). Bologna: Edagricole. ISBN 978-88-506-2449-2.
  • Friis, Ib (1989). Urticaceae. Flora of tropical East Africa. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 978-90-6191-352-8.

Tenglar[breyta | breyta frumkóða]

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