Munur á milli breytinga „Roald Amundsen“

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Árið [[1903]] stjórnaði Amundsen fyrsta leiðangrinum sem fór [[Norðvesturleiðin|norðvesturleiðina]] frá [[Atlantshaf]]i til [[Kyrrahaf]]s ásamt sex öðrum á skipinu ''[[Gjøa]]''. Leið þeirra lá um [[Baffinsflói|Baffinsflóa]], [[Lancaster-sund|Lancaster-]] og [[Peel-sund]], [[James Ross-sund]] og [[Rae-sund]] og voru þeir tvö ár við rannsóknir á landi og ís á svæði umhverfis það sem nú kallast [[Gjoa Haven]] í [[Nunavut]] í [[Kanada]].
== Tenglar ==
{{Commons|Roald Amundsen}}
* [ ''Sögulegt skjal''; grein í Lesbók Morgunblaðsins 1949]
They travelled via [[Baffin Bay]], [[Lancaster Sound|Lancaster]] and [[Peel Sound]]s, and [[James Ross Strait|James Ross]] and [[Rae Strait]]s to spend two winters exploring over land and ice from the place today called [[Gjoa Haven, Nunavut|Gjoa Haven]], [[Nunavut]], [[Canada]].
During this time Amundsen studied the local [[Netsilik]] people in order to learn Arctic survival skills and soon adopted their dress. From them he learned to use [[sled dog]]s. Continuing to the south of [[Victoria Island]], the ship cleared the [[Arctic Archipelago]] on [[August 17]], [[1905]], but had to stop for the winter before going on to [[Nome, Alaska|Nome]] on the [[Alaska|Alaska Territory]]'s Pacific coast. 500 miles (800 km) away, [[Eagle, Alaska|Eagle City, Alaska]], had a [[telegraph]] station; Amundsen travelled there (and back) overland to wire a success message ([[collect call|collect]]) on [[December 5]], [[1905]]. [[Nome, Alaska|Nome]] was reached in [[1906]]. Due to water as shallow as 3 feet (1 m), a larger ship could never have used the route.
== The South Pole ==
[[Image:Nlc_amundsen.jpg|right|250px|Roald Amundsen]]
After the Northwest Passage Amundsen made plans to go to the [[North Pole]]. On hearing in [[1909]] that first [[Frederick Cook]] and then [[Robert Peary]] claimed the Pole, he changed his plans. Using [[Fridtjof Nansen]]'s ship ''[[Fram]]'' ("Forward") he instead set out for Antarctica in [[1910]].
Amundsen told no one of his change of plans except his brother Leon and the officer on board Fram. He was afraid that Nansen would rescind use of Fram if he learned of the change. And he probably didn't want to alert [[Robert Falcon Scott]] that he would have a competitor for the pole. Since the original plan called for going around the horn to the [[Bering Strait]] he waited until Fram reached [[Madeira]] to let his crew know of the change. Every member agreed to continue. Leon made the news public on [[October 2]].
On [[14 January]] [[1911]] they arrived at the [[Ross Ice Shelf]] at a location known as the [[Bay of Whales]]. Amundsen set his base there and named it [[Framheim]], literally, "Home of the Fram." It was 60 [[statute mile]]s <!-just guessing about identity because of conversion factor used, and so any error on the short side, but since statute miles are nonstandard in this context they must be identified if used-> (96 km) closer to the Pole than McMurdo Sound where the rival British expedition led by Scott stayed. But Scott had a route, discovered by [[Ernest Shackleton]], up the [[Beardmore Glacier]] to the [[Antarctic Plateau]]. Amundsen would have to find his own path through the [[Trans-Antarctic Mountains]].
During February and March Amundsen and his men laid supply depots at 80°, 81° and 82° South. This gave him experience of Antarctic conditions and their equipment. During the winter at Framheim they kept busy improving the equipment, particularly the sleds.
Amundsen began his drive for the pole on [[20 October]] [[1911]], and along with [[Olav Bjaaland]], [[Helmer Hanssen]], [[Sverre Hassel]], and [[Oscar Wisting]], arrived at the Pole on [[14 December]] [[1911]], 35 days before Scott. Amundsen named his camp at the South Pole [[Polheim]], "Home of the Pole". Scott had the misfortune to find Amundsen's tent and his letter upon arrival. Amundsen's extensive experience, preparation, and use of the best sled dogs available paid off in the end. In contrast to the misfortunes of the Scott expedition, the Amundsen expedition proved rather smooth and uneventful.
As neither expedition carried the very bulky [[wireless telegraphy]] equipment which would then have been the only way to communicate directly from the Pole, Amundsen's success was not publicly announced until [[7 March]] [[1912]]. Amundsen recounted his journey in the book ''The South Pole: An Account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in the "Fram", 1910&ndash;1912''.
Detailed analysis of the data recorded in the expedition's diaries determined that members of the Amundsen expedition actually got to within 200 metres (220 yd) of the precise mathematical point of the South Pole. In contrast, when Scott reached the Pole, analysis of his data showed that his expedition was no closer than 450 metres (490 yd) from the mathematical point.
The reasons for Amundsen's success and for [[Robert Falcon Scott|Scott's]] failure in returning from the South Pole has always been the subject of controversy. Whereas Admundsen returned, Scott's party of five lost their lives on the [[Ross Ice Shelf]] on the return journey from the pole. There are many reasons why Amundsen was successful, but a major factor was his ruthless use of dogs during the journey. Amundsen's only transport was strong [[Greenland Dog|Greenland Huskies]] to pull his sleds across Antartica. These [[sled dog]]s are powerful and are used to the cold temperatures. Amundsen saved weight by killing dogs progressively and feeding the carcasses to the others. Although Scott also used dogs for the initial stages, it was not so intensively as Admundsen. Scott also used tractors, which broke down, and [[Mongolian Pony|Mongolian Ponies]], which died within a few days. Scott's party was therefore forced to pull their own sleds sooner than they had planned. The other key reason for Admundsen's success was the better weather on his more easterly route. It is now known that Scott's route normally has much worse weather and furthermore Scott endured conditions that were 20 °C (35 °F) colder than the average. Scott experienced prolonged blizzards that might only be expected once in a century, causing delays that consumed a large part of their rations. The low temperatures made the snow behave like soft sand rather than a slippery surface for sledging. The physical effort in man-hauling the sledges in those conditions resulted a massive loss of body-weight. The resulting lack of body fat made them even more susceptible to the cold. Consequently Scott's party succumbed to starvation, the extreme cold, exhaustion and [[scurvy]].
==Later life==
[[Image:Amundsen-in-ice.jpg|thumb|Source: NOAA]]
In [[1918]] Amundsen began an expedition with a new ship ''Maud'' to explore the [[Northeast Passage]]. It did not meet its goals and was considered a failure. In [[1925]] with [[Lincoln Ellsworth]] and four others he flew to 87° 44' north in two aircraft. It was the northernmost latitude reached by plane up to that time. The planes landed a few miles apart without a radio contact, yet the crews managed to reunite. One of the aircraft was damaged. Amundsen and his crew worked for over three weeks to clean up an airstrip to take off from ice. They shovelled 600 tons of ice on 1 lb (400 g) of daily food rations. In the end six crew, packed into the remaining aircraft, took off and barely became airborne over the cracking ice. They returned triumphant when everyone thought they had been lost for ever.
The following year Amundsen, Ellsworth and Italian aeronautical engineer [[Umberto Nobile]] made the first crossing of the Arctic in the airship [[Airship Norge|''Norge'']] designed by Nobile. They left [[Spitzbergen]] on [[May 11]], 1926 and landed in Alaska two days later. Because the three previous claims to have arrived at the North Pole -- by [[Frederick Cook|Cook]] in 1908, [[Robert Peary]] in 1909, and [[Richard Byrd]] in 1926 (just a few days before ''Norge'') -- are all either dubious or fraudulent, Amundsen and the crew of the ''Norge'' are the first verified explorers to have reached the North Pole.
[[Image:NyAlesundAmundsenNorthPoleHotel.JPG|thumbnail|300px|right|Amundsen monument in [[Ny-Alesund]], [[Svalbard]], [[Norway]]]]
Amundsen disappeared on [[June 18]], [[1928]] while flying on a rescue mission for Nobile, whose next airship the [[Airship Italia|''Italia'']] had crashed. Some weeks afterwards, pieces from the plane he was in, improvised into a liferaft, were found near the Tromsø coast. It is believed that the plane crashed and that Amundsen was killed in the crash, or died shortly afterwards. His body was never found.
The [[Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station]] is named jointly after him and his rival.
[[Amundsen Sea]], off the coast of Antarctica, is named for him.
A large [[Impact crater|crater]] covering the [[Moon]]'s south pole is named [[Amundsen Crater]] after him.
The Norwegian Navy is building a class of [[Aegis combat system|Aegis]] [[frigate]]s, one of which, the [[HNoMS Roald Amundsen (F311)|HNoMS ''Roald Amundsen'']], will be named after him.
== External links ==
* [ 70South - information on Roald Amundsen]
*{{gutenberg author|id=Roald_Amundsen|name=Roald Amundsen}}
*[ Arthur G. Chater's 1912 translation of ''The South Pole'']
* [ Short biography from Norwegian Foreign Ministry]
== Bibliography ==
*''Roald Amundsen's [[Belgica]] Diary. The first Scientific Expedition to the Antarctic'' by [[Hugo Decleir]] Bluntisham Books, Erskine Press.
{{Commons|Roald Amundsen}}
[[Flokkur:Könnun Suðurskautslandsins|Amundsen, Roald]]
[[Flokkur:Könnun Norður-Heimskautsins|Amundsen, Roald]]
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