„Singapúr“: Munur á milli breytinga

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Þegar borgin var [[Hernám Japana í Singapúr|hernumin af Japönum]] í síðari heimsstyrjöld, nefndu þeir borgina ''Syonan'' (昭南) „ljós suðursins“.<ref>{{cite book|last=Abshire|first=Jean|title=The History of Singapore|year=2011|publisher=ABC-CLIO|page=104|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=AHF59oExO80C&pg=PA104|isbn=978-0-313-37743-3}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Blackburn|first1=Kevin|first2=Karl|last2=Hack|title=Did Singapore Have to Fall?: Churchill and the Impregnable Fortress|year=2004|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-203-40440-9|page=132|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=TUC2qveu-b8C&pg=PA132}}</ref> Singapúr er oft kölluð „garðaborgin“ með vísun í almenningsgarða og trjágarða meðfram götum borgarinnar.<ref>{{cite book|last1=inc|first1=Encyclopaedia Britannica|title=The New Encyclopædia Britannica|date=1991|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica|location=Chicago|isbn=978-0-85229-529-8|page=832|edition=15th|quote="Singapore, known variously as the 'Lion City,' or 'Garden City,' the latter for its many parks and tree-lined streets|bibcode=1991neb..book.....G}}</ref> Annað gælunafn borgarinnar er „litli rauði punkturinn“ eftir grein sem birtist í ''[[The Wall Street Journal Asia]]'' árið 1998.<ref>{{cite news|title=50 reasons Singapore is the best city in the world |first1=Charlotte |last1=Glennie |first2=Mavis |last2=Ang |first3=Gillian |last3=Rhys |first4=Vidhu |last4=Aul |first5=Nicholas |last5=Walton |url=http://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/singapore-50-reasons |publisher=CNN |date=6 August 2015 |access-date=13 May 2020 |quote="The Lion City. The Garden City. The Asian Tiger. The 'Fine' City. All venerable nicknames, and the longtime favourite is the 'Little Red Dot'"}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=A little red dot in a sea of green|url=https://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21657610-sense-vulnerability-has-made-singapore-what-it-today-can-it-now-relax-bit|work=The Economist|date=16 July 2015|quote="..with a characteristic mixture of pride and paranoia, Singapore adopted 'little red dot' as a motto"|location=London}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Editorial: The mighty red dot|url=http://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2017/09/08/editorial-the-mighty-red-dot.html|work=The Jakarta Post|date=8 September 2017|access-date=13 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{citation|title=Habibie truly admired the 'Little Red Dot'|newspaper=[[Today (Singapore newspaper)]]|date=20 September 2006}}.</ref>
 
== Saga ==
Samkvæmt [[Malajaannálum]] var [[konungsríkið Singapura]] stofnað á eyjunni af [[Sang Nila Utama]].<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=J9JAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA43|title=Malay Annals|page=43|author=<!--unknown; old historical document-->|translator-last=Leyden|translator-first=John|date=1821}}</ref> Þótt sanngildi frásagna Malajaannálanna sé umdeilt eru margar heimildir frá 14. öld sem greina frá verslunarhöfn á [[Temasek]], undir áhrifum frá bæði [[Majapahit]] og [[Ayutthaya]]{{sfn|Miksic|2013|pp=[https://books.google.com/books?id=bMt3BgAAQBAJ&pg=PA184 183–185]}} sem var á [[áhrifasvæði Indlands]].<ref name=Dixon>{{cite book|last1=Dixon|first1=Robert M.W.|last2=Alexandra|first2=Y.|year=2004|title=Adjective Classes: A Cross-linguistic Typology|url=https://archive.org/details/adjectiveclasses00dixo_002|url-access=limited|page=[https://archive.org/details/adjectiveclasses00dixo_002/page/n96 74]|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=0-19-920346-6}}</ref><ref name=Matisoff1990>{{Citation|last=Matisoff|first=James|author-link=James Matisoff|title=On Megalocomparison|journal=Language|volume=66|issue=1|pages=106–120|year=1990|doi=10.2307/415281|jstor=415281}}</ref><ref name=Enfield>{{Citation|last=Enfield|first=N.J.|title=Areal Linguistics and Mainland Southeast Asia|journal=Annual Review of Anthropology|volume=34|pages=181–206|year=2005|doi=10.1146/annurev.anthro.34.081804.120406|url=http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/pubman/item/escidoc:57458/component/escidoc:57459/Enfield_2005_areal.pdf|hdl=11858/00-001M-0000-0013-167B-C|hdl-access=free}}</ref><ref name="academia edu">{{cite journal|url=https://www.academia.edu/2635407|title=As in Heaven, So on Earth: The Politics of Visnu Siva and Harihara Images in Preangkorian Khmer Civilisation|journal=Journal of Southeast Asian Studies|volume=34|issue=1|pages=21–39|publisher=academia edu|access-date=23 December 2015|last1=Lavy|first1=Paul A.|doi=10.1017/S002246340300002X|s2cid=154819912}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.anthropology.hawaii.edu/people/faculty/stark/pdfs/AP1999%20article.pdf|title=Results of the 1995–1996 Archaeological Field Investigations at Angkor Borei, Cambodia|publisher=University of Hawai'i-Manoa|access-date=5 July 2015|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150923172419/http://www.anthropology.hawaii.edu/People/Faculty/Stark/pdfs/AP1999%20article.pdf|archive-date=23 September 2015}}</ref> Ríkin á Temasek einkenndust af seiglu og stöðugleika.<ref>Pierre-Yves Manguin, "From Funan to Sriwijaya: Cultural continuities and discontinuities in the Early Historical maritime states of Southeast Asia", in ''25 tahun kerjasama Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi dan Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient,'' Jakarta, Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi / EFEO, 2002, p. 59-82.</ref> Sögulegar heimildir benda líka til þess að undir lok 14. aldar hafi konungur að nafni [[Parameswara]] orðið fyrir árás annað hvort frá Majapahit eða Ayutthaya, sem neyddi hann til að flýja til [[Malakka]] þar sem hann stofnaði [[soldánsdæmið Malakka]].{{sfn|Miksic|2013|pp=[https://books.google.com/books?id=bMt3BgAAQBAJ&pg=PA162 155–163]}} Fornleifar benda til þess að aðalbyggðin á [[Fort Canning]] hafi verið yfirgefin á þessum tíma, en lítill verslunarstaður hafi lifað áfram í Singapúr einhvern tíma á eftir.<ref name="turnbull" /> Árið 1613 brenndu portúgalskir ræningjar byggðina og eyjan hvarf úr heimildum næstu tvær aldirnar.<ref name="Borschbergp157-158">{{cite book|last=Borschberg|first=P.|title=The Singapore and Melaka Straits. Violence, Security and Diplomacy in the 17th century|publisher=NUS Press|year=2010|location=Singapore|pages=157–158|isbn=978-9971-69-464-7}}</ref> Þá var Singapúr orðið hluti af [[soldánsdæmið Johor|soldánsdæminu Johor]] að nafninu til.<ref name="country studies">{{cite web|url=http://countrystudies.us/singapore/3.htm|title=Country Studies: Singapore: History|publisher=U.S. Library of Congress|access-date=1 May 2007}}</ref> Hafsvæðið í kring og verslunarleiðir voru undir yfirráðum Hollendinga eftir að þeir [[Hollenska Malakka|hernámu Malakka]].<ref name=uslcFοunding>{{cite book|editor-last=Leitch Lepoer|editor-first=Barbara|title=Singapore: A Country Study|url=http://countrystudies.us/singapore/|access-date=18 February 2010|series=Country Studies|year=1989|publisher=GPO for tus/singapore/4.htm}}</ref>
 
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